The comprehensive analysis of peer review articles pertaining to the most effective leadership style for managers did not provide us with clear uniform answers. Yet, the authors were able to deduce key elements and components from this research into a contextual leadership style solution for the changes and challenges that face the 21st century marketplace. The hybrid, contextual leadership style combines basic elements from the charismatic, servant, executive, and transformational models with aspects of transactional, autocratic and situational leadership types. The leader will adopt the leadership style according to the context and level of employee readiness.

The authors recognize that the conclusions derived from the peer reviewed articles are contextual in nature and limited in scope to either geographical regions or specific markets, and should therefore not carry universal weight. They do believe the literature review based findings to have some significance but recommend the effectiveness of the proposed contextual leadership component to be validated by empirical studies. Furthermore, an argument can be made that effective leadership is contingent upon subjective perception of the employee-manager relationship, rather than dependent on traits or context.


Dr. Dave Hinkes is an Associate Professor of Management and Marketing at Lincoln Memorial University (LMU) based in Harrogate, Tennessee. He holds dual doctorates in Management and Marketing from Nova Southeastern University in Davie, Florida and all five available professional sales and marketing certifications from the three different accrediting bodies. He has 27 years of corporate sales/marketing experience in the document management services outsourcing industry. He is CEO of Hink, Inc., a management/marketing/sales/keynote speech consultancy, since 1991 (www.hinkinc.net). His book Selling by Objectives (SBO): The Handbook for More Profitability in the 21st Century is now available in its 3rd Edition.

Lieven T. Cox serves in the capacity of the Director of Rehabilitation Services for Claiborne County Hospital and Nursing Home. He has a Bachelor of Science in Physical Education from the Catholic University of Leuven, Belgium, has completed his general MBA with honors, and is currently pursuing a dual concentration in Management and Human Resources. He received the LMU “MBA Top Scholar” award in 2013, was the recipient of the “Outstanding Young Men of America” in 1992, earned membership in the Omicron Delta Kappa, Delta Mu Delta, and Phi Theta Kappa honor societies, and served 15+ years in civic and professional leadership roles.

Dr. Daniel B. Graves is the Program Director of the Management & Leadership Studies Program and Assistant Professor of Education at Lincoln Memorial University in Harrogate, Tennessee. He has an Ed.D in counseling psychology from the University of Sarasota, a master degree in counseling and guidance from LMU, and a BS in Behavioral Science from the University of Maryland. He is also pursuing an MBA from LMU expecting to complete during summer 2014. His career in higher education spans over twenty years, having been an Assistant Vice President for Student Affairs, Dean of Students, Faculty Athletics Representative to the NCAA, Director of Housing, Director of Counseling, Director of Career Planning and Program Director of a Prevention Education Grant through the Department of Education. His most recent scholarly activity was co-authored research with Drs. McCann, Graves, and Dillon (2012) entitled “The Adult Student Priorities SurveyTM: An analysis at a private central Appalachian university” presented at the Society for Advancement of Management (SAM) International Business Conference in Las Vegas, Nevada, on March 29-April 1, 2012 and included in the conference proceedings, presented at the 2012 SoTL Commons Conference in Macon, Georgia, and accepted for publication with the Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 2012.

H. J. Swender is entering his final year in the MBA Program at LMU in Harrogate, Tennessee. His MBA concentration is Finance. Prior to entering graduate school, he earned an undergraduate degree in economics from the University of Texas-Arlington having graduated in 2011. While completing his undergraduate degree, he completed an internship with the Texas Rangers Professional Baseball Team at their team headquarters in Arlington, Texas. He is a second year graduate assistant to the LMU Men’s Golf Team, where he helped lead the team to a South Atlantic Conference Championship in 2013. In addition, he guided three LMU players to South Atlantic Conference All-Tournament honors. During the summer of 2013, He accepted and completed an internship in the Governor of Kansas Finance Office.

Anthony “Tony” Parker is a Certified Professional Public Buyer (CPPB) who began his formal study at Tusculum

College in Greenville, TN. After obtaining his Bachelor of Science in Organizational Management, he continued his education at LMU where he received an MBA with a concentration in Management. He is currently the Purchasing Agent for Pilot Travel Centers, the President of Willow Oak Homeowners Association (HOA), has worked on numerous community boards, and is a volunteer with Habit for Humanity as well as Fantasy of Trees.