The data for this research paper has been taken from primary data collected by a survey of the retailers between Dec 2010 & May 2011 for the doctoral thesis being prepared by the author, for submission to The DAVV University, Indore, India.

The sampling method chosen is simple random sampling which is a type of probability sampling. Successful globalization

Sample Size

To calculate the sample size following formula was used.

If the researcher plans the results in a variety of ways or if he/she has difficulty in estimating the proportion or standard deviation of the attribute of interest, the following formula may be more useful.

n = _NZ2x.25_

{d2 x (N-1)} + {Z2 x .25}


n= Sample size required

d= Accuracy precision level (i.e 0.01, 0.05, 0.10 etc.)

Z= Standardization value indicating a confidence level (Z= 1.96 at 95% confidence level and Z= 2.56 at 99% confidence level N= Population Size(known or estimated)

Here N= 180 Let us take confidence level as 90% and ┬▒ 10% precision level (d=0.10 and Z= 1.64), then the sample size (n):

n = 180x(1.64)2×0.25

[(0.1)2×179]+[(1.64) 2 X 0.25]

n = 49.15=50companies

There are many traditional and modern retailers were sent the 201.72Questionnaire, which was structured in nature. These retailers were located Indore. Questionnaires were filled by direct interview. The Questionnaire was filled mostly by retailers.

Questionnaire Testing & Reliability Analysis

The questionnaire was pretested on 38 retailers and data was fed into SPSS software. Using SPSS reliability analysis was conducted. The validity of the questionnaire was tested by using expert validity, which is part of expert validity. The Experts approved the questionnaire with small modifications. The revised questionnaire was administered and data was collected from 50 retailers in Indore.