The classical theories which honed in on productivity, efficiency and processes evolved into an emphasis on human behavior in the workplace. One of the most prominent advocates of the human relations movement is Mary Parker Follett who envisioned business as a social agency, whose main objective is to develop relationships with others and oneself for the better of the greater society (Simms, 2009). McGregor, dissatisfied with the classical and early human relations principles created the Theory X and Theory Y management model. Theory X, which assumes workers to be inherently lazy, coerced to work and in need of direction, represents the earlier approaches. Theory Y, in accordance to McGregor’s beliefs, assumes workers to be responsible, innovative, intelligent and autonomous (Kopelman, Prottas, & Davis, 2008).
Recent Trends in Management
“Systems Thinking”, “Contingency View”, and “Total Quality Management” are a few of the more recent historical management views. “Systems Thinking” is the managerial ability to identify and manipulate the elements of a system, and their subsystems, within a complex, changing context to the benefit of the organization (Daft, 2012). Contingency View relates to the theory that each situation is unique and managerial decisions are context-dependent. (Daft, 2012). “Total Quality Management” (TQM) is the brainchild of W. Edwards Deming. The TQM method measures preformance through concerted establishment of cooperative and learning organization systems that facilitates achievement of efficient process, labor and product management. The optimization of production and management practices result in superior customer satisfaction and employee buy-in (Khan M. A., 2010).
The current rapid changing market conditions and turbulent socio-political environment require a new innovative approach. The new technological revolution is in full swing and tests the boundaries of society, especially the business sector, which has seen a shift towards globalization, customer relationship management, outsourcing, and supply chain management.
In addition, companies are developing workplace units that embody innovation, efficiency and agility in an open, collaboration oriented platform (Daft, 2012).