Management and leadership both are crucial to an organization’s success, but often are confused to be identical concepts. Warren Bennis, the founding chairman of USC’s Leadership Institute, describes the distinctions between the two roles as follows:
The manager administers; the leader innovates.
The manager maintains; the leader develops.
The manager focuses on systems and structures; the leader focuses on people.
The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective.
The manager has his or her eye on the bottom line; the leader has his or her eye on the horizon.
The manager imitates; the leader originates. (Berendt, Christofi, Kasibhatla, Malindretos, & Maruff 2012, p. 228).
To shed some clarity on the topic the paper will first define the concepts of management, self-management and leadership, and then highlight the interdependent relationship of leadership within the management perspective.
The Evolution of Management
Richard Daft (2012) defines “management” as “the attainment of organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading and controlling organizational resources” (p. 6). A chronological description of the major trends in the science of management will provide an understanding and perspective of how socio-political and economical forces affect organizational behavior on a time continuum.
The art of management has been in practice since the inception of the first socio-political organization.
Yet, management, as a science, did not formally emerge until the nineteenth century in response to the challenges sprouting from the industrial revolution. The first or classical management perspective consisted of three distinctively different approaches, the science management theory, the bureaucratic organization, and the administrative school of thought.
Frederick Winslow Taylor was one the first to lead the way. As the founder of the scientific management theory, he used his engineering skills to develop task efficiency, process improvement, and labor productivity guidelines to achieve the greatest prosperity for both the employer and the employee. The scientific management theory encompasses the following principles:
• Scientifically examine each element of a job,
• Systematically select, train, teach, and develop each individual worker,
• Cooperate with the worker to ensure maximal job efficiency,
• The manager is responsible for how the job should be done, while the worker is responsible for doing the job (Blake & Moseley, 2011).
Max Weber constructed the “bureaucratic organizations” management model which postulates that organizational performance is the product of a rational, formal organizational structure. Operations are defined by rules and procedures and a hierarchical line of authority, based on competencies and qualifications (Daft, 2012).
Henri Fayol, a french mining engineer and time companion of both Taylor and Weber, is credited with being the father of the ‘administrative school’ of management. This school of thought proposes for managers to be responsible for administering the affairs of the whole organisation by employing his five functions of management; (1) to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to co-ordinate and to control (McLean, 2011).