Constructing a leadership model is like deciphering a complex brainteaser; it entails identifying the key components of the riddle and then solving the puzzle by aligning and fitting the different pieces in the appropriate slots. Similarly, in order to develop an effective leadership template for managers we need to identify which components and attributes are relevant.

Leadership Components Process

Recent trends have redefined leadership from a personal action or role perspective to a process, which implies that leadership is not solely attributed to individual actions (Petrie, 2011). This statement is echoed by Brumfield (2012) and Daft (2012) who postulate the main focus of leadership to be a process of influence over the organization as a whole. The ultimate goal is how to match and balance the individual goals with the organizational objectives, and in this context, “who” leads becomes secondary to the “what” being the needs and ambitions of the stakeholders and “how” we can satisfy them (Petrie, 2011, p. 23).


Several literary experts assume that specific personal traits are the core determinants of leadership effectiveness. A study by Malik, et al. (2011) proved a positive correlation to exist, in order of statistical significance, between the traits of emotional maturity, self-confidence, sense of humor and the effectiveness of a principal’s leadership in Punjab, India. Malos (2011) examines the determinants of leadership in his “Leadership’s Trait Theories” article, quoting Bass’ six characteristics that differentiate leaders from non-leaders: drive, the desire to lead, honesty/integrity, self-confidence, cognitive ability, and knowledge of the business (p. 216). These specific traits would enable a person to generate leadership capital, which translates into influence within all levels of the organization.


Intellectual competency and expertise are crucial components of “leadership” as well. Deming supports this position with the statement “there is no substitute for teamwork and good leaders, who will bring consistency of effort along with knowledge” (Chamberlin, 2012, p. 34). Leaders must know the work they supervise which implies for managers to “GOYA” (get out of your office) and apply the “GeYoHaDi” principle, get your hands dirty and gain in-depth knowledge of the various job tasks assigned to your employees (Chamberlin, 2012, p. 30).