ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE OF GREEK BANKING INSTITUTIONS: METHODS

Participants

The sample of this study comprised employees of a certain bank in Greece. A total of 400 questionnaire sent by email in their accounts at work. After a two months period, a total of 312 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 70 per cent. Of these 240 questionnaires used in the final statistical analysis because the rest were half completed. They were 72 males (30%) and 168 females (70%). The employees ranged in age from 31-60 years (M= 40.28, SD=8.24). The majority of the participants (50%) hold a university degree (N=120) while 20% of them (N=48) had also a postgraduate degree. The sample of the study is a group of young and educated people, which means that they have basic knowledge about the concept of this study adding accuracy to the findings (Acar and Acar 2012). Most of the employees (N=153) had been working as bank employees for 6-15 years and the majority of them (N=153) had been working in the same bank for 6-15 years. The majority of the employees (N=143) were simple clerks, 29.2% (N=70) were supervisors and 11.3% (N=24) were managers or assistant managers.

Instruments

In the present study the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) survey was used (Cameron and Quinn 2006). The OCAI has been used to identify the organization’s current culture. It has also been used to help the members of an organization to identify the culture they would like to be developed in order to match their future demands. It is based on the Competing Values Framework, referring to whether an organization has a predominantly internal or external focus and whether it strives for flexibility and individuality or stability and control (Cameron and Quinn 2006).

The OCAI consists of six questions (Dominant Characteristics, Organizational Leadership, Management of Employees, Organizational Glue, Strategic Emphases, Criteria of Success). Each question has four alternatives (A=Clan, B=Adhocracy, C=Market, D=Hierarchy). Individuals completing the OCAI are asked to divide 100 points among the four alternatives, depending on the extent to which each alternative is similar to the organization being assessed. A higher number of points are to be given to the alternative that is most similar to the organization in question. Results of the OCAI survey are obtained by computing the average of the response scores for each alternative. Once scores are determined for all alternatives in both the Now and Preferred columns, they can be plotted to draw a picture of the organizational culture profile.

In order to be able to use the OCAI survey in the Greek environment permission was obtained and the questionnaire its self was translated in Greek in order to much the meaning of the initial questionnaire. According to Banville et al (2000), when a questionnaire is used in a sample that speak different language, it is important to follow translation and validation procedures in order to be accurate in the specific environment. Vallerand (as mentioned in Banville et al 2000), has suggested seven steps that are essential in cross cultural studies: a) preparation of preliminary translated versions of the questionnaire, b) evaluation of these versions by experts and preparation of the experimental version, c)pretest of the version, devaluation of the content and concurrent validity and g) establishing norms. In the present study, all seven steps were followed in order to apply OCAI instrument for the purposes of the research.

Procedure

The method chosen to assess organizational culture was that of self-completed questionnaires. Researchers informed all subjects that their participation was completely voluntary and the individual responses would be held in confidence. Quantitative data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis and paired t-tests were chosen as the most appropriate method for purposes of this study.