The per capita emissions is increased to 1.51T in 2010 from 0.7T in 1990,(Global CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use and cement production per region,1990-2010). Though our contribution is small when compared to rich Countries like US,EU and Japan, as a developing nation these numbers will raise in coming years with 40 largest coal based thermal plants, 5 largest steel plant and 15 largest cement plants in India. If you look at the GHG emissions from India in 2007, buildings alone are contributing about 12.5% for creating the comfortable environment inside. If we consider the industries producing building materials like cement , steel and ceramics the contribution will be 20.2%,( India-Green House Gas Emissions, 2007 by Ministry of Environment and forests, Govt. of India.)
ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN BUILDINGS
Total GHG emissions in India in 2007
The literature suggests that energy consumption for thermal comfort in building sector is 60% of the total energy consumption. Building designs do not start with climate as the prime parameter resulting in discomfort and recurring expenditure of energy to improve the comfort levels in the building, Debnath (1995) Kaushik (1988). Annual Electrical consumption in Residential & Commercial Buildings in India is as below.
Inside the built envelop, many building materials, furnishes give off toxic byproducts causing to indoor air pollution, poorly designed lighting and ventilation causes health problems etc. An aesthetically pleasing and functionally active building is no longer a good Building design but it should be environmentally responsive too.
The climate sensitive design or Solar passive Architecture deals with the local climatic conditions and determine the basic internal space conditions like to the extent HVAC services are needed and the comfort levels of occupants.
Thermal comfort in buildings deals with the heat flux in to the building envelop through the surfaces exposed to the climate.