This can be achieved by Passive solar architecture or Design. These passive technologies maximize the indoor comfort levels by studying the micro and macro climate of the site and various bioclimatic concepts in terms of Orientation & Shape of the Building
Building orientation is an important parameter of the design. In hot/cold climates the building needs to be oriented such that solar radiation is admitted as per the climatic condition.
The plan form of a building affects the airflow around and through it. The perimeter to area ratio of the building is an important indicator of heat loss and gain. It, therefore plays a role in ventilation, heat loss and heat gain. This causes a new airflow pattern.
The pattern and configuration of openings such as windows forms important aspects of climatic design. These provide for the purpose of heat gain, day lighting and ventilation. Appropriate design of openings and shadings devices help to keep out sun and allow them in building. Ventilation lets in fresh air and exhausts hot air from room resulting in cooling of the space.
Thumb rules for fenestration configuration
This is a major part of building envelope and receive large amount of direct radiation. Depending on whether the need for heating or cooling, variations in the thickness and material of the wall can be decided .The heat gain occurs more than 25% due to conduction by walls in warmer region. Hence control of heat through walls must be an important consideration for reducing cooling loads.
Passive solar heating techniques aim at promoting solar heat gain through direct or indirect means. The solar radiation falls on the external surfaces of the buildings is transmits to the internal surfaces and will be absorbed by them heating them up. Passive heating may be attained through
1. Appropriate size & orientation of the building
2. Minimizing conductive losses by reducing surfaces exposure on north side
3. Minimizing external air flow by reducing pressure difference between two opposite sides. Passive cooling may be attained through
4. Appropriate shading devises to reduce the direct solar heat gain
5. Appropriate roof designs and by increasing roof height, conductance can be reduced.
6. Orientation of the building as per the wind direction
7. Green roofs
Landscaping is an important element in changing the climate of a space. Proper planting of trees reduces the striking of direct Sun light and can alter the air flow patterns. The shades created by trees, shrubs and other plants reduces the air temperatures adjoining the buildings and provide evaporative cooling.